Vaginal Repair of Vesicovaginal Fistula

There are numerous causes for the formation of a fistula tract between the bladder and the vagina. In developing countries the primary etiology is prolonged and obstructed labor, but in more developed countries the cause of approximately 90% of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is surgical trauma following gynecologic procedures. Total abdominal hysterectomy for benign disease accounts for the majority offistulae secondary to gynecologic surgery. Common nonsurgical causes include advanced local carcinoma (cervical, vaginal, endometrial) and radiation therapy. Risk factors for VVF formation include prior uterine surgery (Cesarean section), endometriosis, infection, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and prior radiation therapy. Read more of this post